Description\n \n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n Using APA style reference\n \n\n Using Times New Roman (size 12, double-spaced) font\n \n\n You must consider the number of words in each question\n \n\n Please read the terms of duty in the file and follow them\n \n\n Please finish it before the period thank you\n \n\n Also, do not copy any sentence and reformulate it in your own way\n \n\n\n\nالمملكة العربية السعودية\nوزارة التعليم\nالجامعة السعودية اإللكترونية\nKingdom of Saudi Arabia\nMinistry of Education\nSaudi Electronic University\nCollege of Administrative and Financial Sciences\nAssignment 2\nCommunication Management (MGT 421)\nDue Date: 12/11/2022 @ 23:59\nCourse Name: Communication Management\nStudent’s Name:\nCourse Code: MGT421\nStudent’s ID Number:\nSemester: 1st Semester\nCRN:\nAcademic Year: 2022-23-1st\nFor Instructor’s Use only\nInstructor’s Name:\nStudents’ Grade: /15\nLevel of Marks: High/Middle/Low\nGeneral Instructions – PLEASE READ THEM CAREFULLY\n•\n•\n•\n•\n•\n•\n•\n•\n•\nThe Assignment must be submitted on Blackboard (WORD format only) via allocated\nfolder.\nAssignments submitted through email will not be accepted.\nStudents are advised to make their work clear and well presented, marks may be reduced\nfor poor presentation. This includes filling your information on the cover page.\nStudents must mention question number clearly in their answer.\nLate submission will NOT be accepted.\nAvoid plagiarism, the work should be in your own words, copying from students or other\nresources without proper referencing will result in ZERO marks. No exceptions.\nUse APA reference style.\nAll answered must be typed using Times New Roman (size 12, double-spaced) font. No\npictures containing text will be accepted and will be considered plagiarism).\nSubmissions without this cover page will NOT be accepted.\nLearning Outcomes:\n2.4 Illustrate techniques and skills of correct business research report writing; learn report\nwriting style using an approved style; and, apply the basics of oral communication in a\npresentation of a project, including, proper speech, organization, use of graphical aids, and\neffective non-verbal communications.\n3.1 Analyze effective business letters, memorandums, and case studies.\nAssignment Question(s):\nPart 1 (7 Marks)\nExamine each of the following charts (Figures 1, and 2) and respond to the questions below:\nFigure 1\nFigure 2\nSource: General Authority of Statics\n1. Evaluate each one in terms of: (5 Marks)\n(a) title descriptiveness, (b) focal points, (c) information sufficiency, (d) ease of\nprocessing, and (e) takeaway message\n2. Describe at least one effective aspect for each chart. (1 Mark)\n3. Make two recommendation for improving them. (1 Mark)\nPart 2 (8 Marks)\nPersuading University Students to Start a Saving Account\n1. Assume the role of a banker, create a message that targets university students and\npersuades them to start a retirement account. (2 Marks)\n2. Which psychological tools of influence (consistency, reciprocation, social proof,\nauthority, liking, scarcity) did you use? Why? (1 Mark)\n3. Which kind of appeals did you use in this message? Would you consider this\nmessage to be catering more to emotion or logic? Explain. (1 Mark)\nPersuading Human Resources Manager for Promotion\n1. Assume the role of an employee, create a message that targets the HR manger\npersuades him/her to promote you. (2 Marks)\n2. Which psychological tools of influence (consistency, reciprocation, social proof,\nauthority, liking, scarcity) did you use? Why? (1 Mark)\n3. Which kind of appeals did you use in this message? Would you consider this\nmessage to be catering more to emotion or logic? Explain. (1 Mark)\nReference:\n(2017). Environment Economic Survey (Industry). General Authority of Statistic.\nhttps://www.stats.gov.sa/en/906\nCHAPTER 10:\n:\nR9\nTE\nss\nAP B usine\nH\ns\ne\nC\ne\nCHAPTER 10:\nB\nC H ONU\nAP S\nCris\nis C\nTE\nR:\nand omm\nPe r s u a s i ve\nM es s ag es\nn\nsag\nuti\nRo M e s\nPersuasive Messages\ns\nCH\nMe\nAP\nTE\ncia\nl\nR\nB M\nC o u s i n e di a 8:\nmm\ne\nf\nu n s s or\nica\nt io\nn\n1:\nR1\nTE s\nA P N ew s\nCH B a d – s a g e\nPub unic\nlic R ati\nMe\nela ons\nssa\ntio\nge\nns\ns\nCH\nSo\nAP\nTeam\nCo\nT\nDifficu mmu E\nlt C\nni\non c\nv\n2:\nCHAPTER\nIm ilit y\nb\nign\nada\nDes\nRe\nand\ne\nl\ny\nSt\nCHA\nC\n13\nBu si omp le\nnes\nt ing :\ns\nP\nr\nop\nan d\nB u s osal\ns\nRe p i n e s s\nor t s\nna\nrperso l Commun\nInte motional I\nnte icati\nE\nllig\no\nand\nen\n7:\nCHAPTER\nEstablishing\nCredibilit y\nPTE\nR\nba\nCH munication and\nom rsit y\ne\nDiv\nlC\n4:\nag\nER\nAPT\n5:\nR c t i ve e s\no\nss\ne\nC HA\nB u rea t P\nsin ing TE\ne\nss Eff\nM\ne\ne\n:\n14\nR\nTE ng s\nAP a n n i a t i o n\nCH P l s e n t\nC\nr ing\nD e l i ve\nnt at ions\nP res e\nE R 15:\nHA PT\n1 6:\nEmp l o\nC o m m y ment\nunica\nt ion\ns\nCH AP\nC\nTER\nEstablishing\nCredibility\nPr\nE m a i l an d O\nt her\nTraditional T\nools\nfo r B u s i n e\nss\nCommunic\nation\nCHAPTER 1:\nGl\nR 6:\nPTE g\nA\nC H p rov i n w i t h\nE R 12 :\nCHAP T\n:\nce\nan d\nRe s e a rc h\ns s P ro p o s a l s\nBu sine\ni ng\nand Plan n\nes s\nfo r B u s i n\nRe p o r t s\n3 and\nR\nio n i o n s\nt\nsa\ner\nat\nn\nPRINCIPLES OF INTERPERSONAL\nCOMMUNICATION\nPRINCIPLES FOR & TYPES OF\nBUSINESS MESSAGES\nLEARNING OBJECTIVES\nAfter studying this chapter, you should be able to do the following:\nLO10.1\nDescribe the relationship between\ncredibility and persuasion.\nLO10.5\nExplain how to influence professionals with\nvarious decision-making styles.\nLO10.2\nExplain the AIM planning process for\npersuasive messages and the basic\ncomponents of most persuasive messages.\nLO10.6\nCompose influential external persuasive\nmessages.\nLO10.7\nConstruct effective mass sales messages.\nLO10.3\nExplain how the tone and style of\npersuasive messages impact their influence.\nLO10.8\nEvaluate persuasive messages for\neffectiveness and fairness.\nLO10.4\nCreate compelling internal persuasive\nmessages.\n294\ncar88340_ch10_294-333.indd 294\n10/16/19 9:02 AM\nWHY DOES THIS MATTER?\nIn many business situations, you hope to persuade others. In internal business\ncommunications, you may want your boss, peers, or colleagues to consider or\nadopt your ideas when their perspectives differ from yours. In external business\ncommunications, you will want to persuade your clients, customers, and prospects\nto use your products and services. Persuasion involves influencing others to see\nthe merits of your ideas and act on your requests, even when they initially resist.\nIn this chapter, we explore strategies for persuading others through writing.\nIn some ways, all business messages contain an element of persuasion—that\nis, you are hoping to influence the way others think, feel, or behave. Many of the\nconcepts in this chapter will enhance your ability to make any kind of request.\nHowever, the approaches in this chapter are most applicable to situations in which\nyour audience will initially resist your requests.\nThroughout this chapter, you will see examples of persuasive messages at\nBetter Horizons Credit Union. The chapter case provides the background.\nHear Pete Cardon\nexplain why\nthis matters.\nbit.ly/cardon10\n SHIFTING COURSE AT BETTER HORIZONS\nCHAPTER CASE\nCREDIT UNION\nHa\nCh\nris ti n e R u s\nMarketing Specialist\nPresident and CEO\n•\n•\n•\n•\nStarted working at Better Horizons nearly five\nyears ago. She has worked 20 to 30 hours per\nweek while attending college with a major in\nfinance and a minor in event management.\nStarted as a teller. Within a few years, she was\npromoted to positions of teller supervisor, loan\nofficer, and marketing specialist.\nCurrently working on marketing initiatives under\nthe direction of Christine Russo.\n•\ns\no\nWho’s Involved\nn iz Z o g by\nHas worked at Better Horizons for\napproximately ten years.\nCurrently interested in increasing\nthe number of young members.\nWith declining numbers of young\nmembers, she is concerned that\nthe credit union does not have\ngood long-term prospects.\nHaniz and Christine Want to Attract New Members by Focusing\non Financial Planning\nChristine recognized that people under the age of 25 were not joining the credit\nunion. Christine asked Haniz and several marketing team members to develop\na plan to attract more college students. After several months of work, Haniz and\nthe team have a plan, but they know the executive team is deeply skeptical of\nplans to draw younger members. These plans have failed often in the past.\nSITUATION 1\n(Haniz Zogby character): Ingram Publishing; (Christine Russo character): Jacobs Stock Photography/Photodisc/\nGetty Images\n295\ncar88340_ch10_294-333.indd 295\n10/16/19 9:02 AM\nSituation 2\nChristine and Haniz Promote a Mentorship Program to Attract and Retain New Hires\nChristine recognizes that Better Horizons needs to hire younger, early-career professionals for several reasons. She thinks hiring early-career professionals will help with\nthe strategy to attract younger members. She recently asked several of her employees to develop a mentoring program, which would help attract and retain new hires.\nShe wants to persuade employees to volunteer as mentors for this program. Also,\nshe wants Haniz to use the mentorship program as part of a pitch about career\nopportunities to soon-to-be college graduates.\nSituation 3\nHaniz Is in Charge of Recruiting Participants for a Local Charity Event\nChristine asked Haniz to be in charge of recruiting credit union members to join this\nyear’s Hope Walkathon to support research on breast cancer. Better Horizons has\nassembled a walkathon team for this prominent community event each year for\nnearly a decade. Haniz is writing an email to send to all credit union members. The\nmessage will be modified slightly to appear as an announcement on the credit union\nwebsite as well.\nSituation 4\nHaniz Needs to Create a Flyer Explaining the Benefits of Credit Union Membership Compared to Banks\nHaniz is working on a flyer describing the benefits of membership at Better Horizons\nCredit Union. The flyer will be part of a packet of materials that is distributed to community members who participate in free financial planning and income tax assistance\nseminars offered by Better Horizons. Haniz is using the message to highlight the\nbenefits of Better Horizons compared to local banks.\nSituation 5\nHaniz Is Helping Develop a Sales Message for Auto Loans\nHaniz and several other employees are working on sales messages for auto loans.\nIn recent months, Better Horizon’s senior management decided the credit union\nshould become a “player” in the auto loans market. Few Better Horizons members\ntake advantage of car loans, most assuming that dealer financing is cheaper and\neasier to get.\nTASK\n1\n2\n3\nHow will Haniz write a\nmessage to Christine and\nthe executive team that\nmotivates them to invest in\na new campaign? (See the\nsection “Creating Internal\nPersuasive Messages.”)\nHow will Christine solicit volunteers\nfor the mentorship program? (See\n“Creating Internal Persuasive\nMessages.”) How will Haniz pitch\ncareer opportunities at Better\nHorizons to soon-to-be college\ngraduates? (See the section\n“Composing Mass Sales Messages.”)\nHow will Haniz\npersuade credit union\nmembers to join the\nHope Walkathon?\n(See the section\n“Constructing\nExternal Persuasive\nMessages.”)\n4\n5\nHow will Haniz develop a general-purpose\nflyer that shows the broad benefits of\nchoosing Better Horizons Credit Union\nover banks? (See “Constructing External\nPersuasive Messages.”)\nHow will Haniz develop\nsales messages for an\nauto loan campaign? (See\n“Composing Mass Sales\nMessages.”)\n296\ncar88340_ch10_294-333.indd 296\n10/24/19 9:58 PM\nPERSUASIVE MESSAGES CHAPTER TEN 297\nThe Importance of Credibility in an Era\nof Mistrust and Skepticism\nWhile credibility is critical to all business communications, its importance is heightened for persuasive messages. By definition, persuasion implies that you are communicating with someone who does not think or feel the same way as you do. So, your goal\nis to help your audience members identify with and find merit in your positions. If they\nquestion your credibility, they are unlikely to carefully consider your ideas, requests, or\nrecommendations.\nPersuasion is becoming more difficult as we live in a time of increasing mistrust. In\nChapter 1, we discussed the declining levels of trust for nearly all professional groups,\nparticularly business-related occupations. Michael Maslansky, one of the leading corporate communications experts, has labeled this the post-trust era (PTE):\nLO10.1 \nDescribe the\nrelationship\nbetween credibility\nand persuasion.\nJust a few years ago, salespeople, corporate leaders, marketing departments,\nand communicators like me had it pretty easy. We looked at communication\nas a relatively linear process. . . . But trust disappeared, things changed. . . .\nIn a word, trust is out, skepticism is in.1\nOver the past decade, Michael Maslansky and his colleagues have\nexamined how language is used to persuade and motivate others. By\ninterviewing hundreds of thousands of employees and customers in\nsome 30 countries, they have found that the language of trust is more\nimportant than ever. Furthermore, they have noticed emerging trends\nin how language impacts trust. Strategies for persuasion that once\nworked are less effective in the PTE. Other strategies continue to work\nwell. In this chapter, we sort through some of these basic principles of\npersuasive writing and identify those strategies that are most effective\nin the PTE.\nIn the post-trust era, persuasion is more\nchallenging.\nGajus/Shutterstock\nApplying the AIM Planning Process to Persuasive Messages\nPersuasion involves extensive planning: analyzing your audience to understand their\nneeds, values, and how they are influenced; gathering the right information as you wrestle with the complicated business issues at hand; and developing a message that most\neffectively reduces resistance and gains buy-in. Many effective business communicators\nspend weeks and months learning about their target audiences, gathering information,\nand piecing together persuasive messages.\nUnderstand Your Audience\nTo convince others to modify their own ideas and accept yours, you need to show that\nyou care about them and that your ideas fit into their interests. This is the approach\ncommunication specialist Liz Simpson recommends:\nTo succeed at the persuasion game, you have to be absolutely committed to understanding\nthe other side’s position as well as your own. Without that willingness to try on the other\nside’s arguments, you simply cannot be persuasive. From that understanding will come the\ninsights you need to move the other side over to your camp.2\nThis is true not only for ideas but also for products and services. Your best argument is\nalways one that meets the needs and wants of your audience.\nUnderstanding the needs and values of others is not simple. It requires a strong listening orientation. You will need to ask lots of questions to get beyond a surface understanding about the hopes, expectations, and hidden assumptions of your target\naudience. Once you know your target audience’s needs and values, you are in a strong\nposition to explain how your product, service, or idea benefits them.\ncar88340_ch10_294-333.indd 297\nLO10.2 \nExplain the AIM\nplanning process\nfor persuasive\nmessages and\nthe basic\ncomponents of\nmost persuasive\nmessages.\n®\nVisit http://connect.\nmheducation.com for an\nexercise on this topic.\nAudience\nInformation\nPlan\nMessage\n10/16/19 9:02 AM\n298 PART FOUR TYPES OF BUSINESS MESSAGES\nAs you consider the needs of others in the workplace, you should always keep in\nmind the deep and underlying hopes of others. Your colleagues will generally want\nto help when they share the same purposes and values. Similarly, your colleagues\nnearly always want to feel appreciated and needed. For colleagues and customers,\nyou can consider a variety of psychological principles of influence. Also, you should\nconsider whether you are making a logical appeal or an emotional one in your persuasive messages.\nPersuade through Shared Purpose and Shared Values In today’s networked and more open work environment, professionals increasingly work in teams\nand communities (within organizations) tied together by a shared purpose and\nshared values. As a result, many professionals are highly motivated by appeals to\nsupport their organizations, their teams, and their colleagues because colleagues\ngenuinely want to help.\nWhen you make appeals to shared purpose and shared values, your credibility is\ntypically the most important factor in gaining your colleagues’ support. You can influence others best when they believe you are sincerely acting on behalf of the organization and them (caring), you are candid about the reasons behind your requests\n(character), and others are confident that your ideas will really make a positive difference (competence). While these types of appeals are often effective, use them sparingly.\nWhen overused, appeals to purpose and values may be interpreted as self-serving or\ninsincere. You’ll notice a persuasive message later in the chapter (Figure 10.5) that is\nprimarily based on an appeal to shared purpose.\nShow People They Are Sincerely Needed and Appreciated You can\ninfluence colleagues and partners far more easily when they know you appreciate\nthem for their hard work, their abilities, and their good intentions. By complimenting them and expressing appreciation to them, they often will want to return that\ngoodwill to you (discussed further in a few paragraphs in relation to the principle of\nreciprocity). Similarly, most of your colleagues want to feel needed. They want to feel\nthat they are essential to getting work done. Your ability to persuade colleagues is\noften closely tied to how needed and appreciated you make them feel. Of course,\nyour colleagues must trust your sincerity when you show them they are needed and\nappreciated.\nUnderstand Methods of Influence Dr. Robert Cialdini, a marketing psychologist, has spent his career studying how people are influenced in business and marketing environments. He has examined research in this area for four decades, plus he\nspent three years taking undercover jobs in car dealerships, telemarketing firms, fundraising organizations, and other buyer–seller environments to learn the most influential ways of getting people to say yes. Based on his work, he has identified six principles\nof persuasion (aside from the price and quality of products and services). These principles include reciprocation, consistency, social proof, liking, authority, and scarcity.3\nHaniz’s message to recruit credit union members for the Hope Walkathon offers an\ninteresting example for applying these various principles (see Figure 10.9 for her completed message).\nReciprocation is a principle of influence based on returning favors. As defined by\nCialdini, “We should try to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us.” 4\nCialdini cited an interesting study in which a professor sent Christmas cards to a random sample of strangers to see what would happen. Many of the card recipients reciprocated, sending cards to the professor without attempting to find out who he was. The\nstudy showed that even card receivers who did not know the card sender and who might\nnot interact with the card sender in the future felt compelled to return the favor of sending a card. People tend to feel obligated to pay back others when they’ve received something of value.5\ncar88340_ch10_294-333.indd 298\n10/16/19 9:02 AM\nPERSUASIVE MESSAGES CHAPTER TEN 299\nHaniz uses the principle of reciprocation in her message in several ways. For example, she focuses on a lengthy reciprocal relationship that the credit union has with the\nlocal breast cancer center, and the walkathon serves as the mechanism that draws the\ntwo organizations together. The credit union helps the center by generating walkathon\ndonations, and the center helps the credit union and the larger community through\nmore effective breast cancer treatment and education. Furthermore, the message\nimplies a reciprocal relationship between the credit union and its members by offering\nvarious free items, such as a T-shirt, a water bottle, and a cancer guide, to members who\nare willing to participate in the walkathon.\nConsistency is based on the idea that once people make an explicit commitment,\nthey tend to follow through or honor that commitment. In other words, they want to\nstay consistent with their original commitment. Cialdini cited several studies to make\nthis point. In one, psychologists found that horse racing fans become more confident\nthat their horses would win after placing a bet. Once they made a final commitment,\nthey were further convinced of the correctness of their choice.6\nHaniz appeals to commitment and consistency in several ways. Foremost, she\nappeals to the credit union’s long commitment to the fight against breast cancer. Some\ncredit union members will want to continue to honor this long-standing collective commitment and will appreciate that their credit union is doing so. She also provides links\nin the message for people to immediately act on their interest in the walkathon. A link\nto register right now serves as an immediate commitment to participate.\nSocial proof is a principle of influence whereby people determine what is right, correct, or desirable by seeing what others do. Haniz employs several appeals to social\nproof in her letter. She describes the level of participation and contribution among\nmembers in last year’s walkathon, implying that the popularity and financial impact of\nthis event make it a good cause. Also, the walkathon itself is a type of social proof; the\ngathering of thousands of people wearing team T-shirts and marching in unison for a\ncause is powerful imagery.7\nLiking is a principle of influence whereby people are more likely to be persuaded by\npeople they like.8 Haniz appeals directly to this principle by describing Betty Williams,\nwho is a breast cancer survivor, the benefactor of the breast center, a credit union member, and a participant in the walkathon. Betty Williams is presumably a person most\npeople in the community know and like, a woman many of the credit union members\nmay know from running into her at the credit union or other community events, and a\nwoman who is passionate about an important cause (a reason for liking). Haniz emphasizes in the message that walkathon participants will join this likable and respected\ncommunity member at the walkathon.\nAuthority is a principle of influence whereby people follow authority figures. The\nnumber of celebrity endorsements in advertising is evidence of how authority can\nimpact persuasion.9 Although Haniz does not appeal to a national celebrity, she does\nappeal to a prominent local community member—again Betty Williams. With Betty’s\nlevel of influence and personal experience combating cancer, she is likely seen as an\nauthority. Furthermore, Haniz also appeals to members to support the Betty Williams\nBreast Center, a group of expert professionals who collectively are authorities on breast\ncancer.\nScarcity is a principle of influence whereby people think there is limited availability\nof something they want or need, so they must act quickly.10 Haniz employs this principle in terms of time. She explains that the walkathon occurs only once each year (limited time period to participate) and that participants must sign up by a given deadline\n(limited time period to sign up).\nYou will apply these principles most often in external persuasive messages, and you\nshould always apply them fairly. Cialdini describes them as “weapons of influence.”11\nThe very term weapons implies that they are powerful and can do harm. In the “Apply\nthe FAIR Test” section near the end of the chapter, we further discuss the appropriate\nuse of these principles.\ncar88340_ch10_294-333.indd 299\n10/16/19 9:02 AM\n300 PART FOUR TYPES OF BUSINESS MESSAGES\nPersuade through Emotion and Reason Most people justify their business\ndecisions based on the soundness of ideas, not feelings. Savvy business communicators, however, understand the importance of injecting emotion into their persuasive\nmessages. While they appreciate the place of reason in business and consumer decisions, they understand that resistance to ideas, products, and services is often emotional. Conversely, they are aware that their target audiences often possess strong\nemotional attachment to competing ideas, products, and services. Thus, effective\ncommunicators find ways to appeal to the core emotional benefits of products, services, and ideas.12\nEven in internal persuasive messages, emotional appeals are critical, as indicated by\nCraig Conway, former president and CEO of PeopleSoft:\nGood communicators have an enormous advantage over poor communicators because so\nmuch of running a company is inspirational. . . . You just have to be able to persuade people\nthat they are a part of something bigger. If you have a creative vision and you can communicate it in a compelling way to get people excited, you will recruit better people as a result.\nThen, it is easy to convince the world that you have a more dynamic company.13\nPart of understanding your audience is identifying the needs and values that resonate\nemotionally for them.\nTypically, internal persuasive messages focus mostly on logical appeals. External persuasive messages, with the exception of those that emphasize price, generally include\nstrong emotional appeals. As you develop persuasive messages, think about how to get\nthe right mix of logical and emotional appeals. Generally, you will supply both but\nemphasize one or the other. Keep in mind that even when you choose to make strong\nemotional appeals in written messages, you should generally avoid the tone of mass\nadvertising, where exaggeration, sarcasm, and over-the-top appeals are acceptable and\neven effective. Later in the chapter, you will notice several messages created by Haniz\nand Christine—two based more strongly on logical appeals (Figures 10.7 and 10.10) and\ntwo on emotional appeals (Figures 10.9 and 10.11).\nGather the Right Information\nComponents of\nPersuasive\nMessages\n•\n•\n•\n•\n•\nGain attention.\nRaise a need.\nDeliver a solution.\nProvide a rationale.\nValidate the views,\npreferences, and\nconcerns of others.\n• Give counterpoints\n(optional).\n• Call to action.\nGathering the right information and developing your ideas for persuasive messages is\ncritical. Since your audience is resistant to the message, one of your key tasks is to\nestablish credibility. Developing strong ideas in the interest of your audience helps\nyou demonstrate your voice of competence. It involves gaining a deep understanding\nof the benefits and drawbacks of your ideas, products, and services. In addition, it\ninvolves gaining a thorough understanding of competing ideas, products, and services.\nThus, before attempting to persuade others, expert business communicators seek to\nunderstand products, services, and ideas in great depth so that they can speak from an\nauthoritative and competent perspective. To address the issue of attracting younger\ncredit union members, Christine and Haniz spend months learning about the strategies that other credit unions use. When Haniz works on a message that promotes her\ncredit union over local banks, she carefully analyzes and compares the major products\nand services offered by her credit union and those of competing banks. When Haniz\nworks on a message to persuade credit union members to join the Hope Walkathon,\nshe learns all she can about participation in this event and how it helps in the fight\nagainst breast cancer.\nSet Up the Message\nMost business writing is direct and explicit. It is direct in that you begin with a main\nidea or argument and then provide the supporting reasons. It is explicit in that nothing\nis implied; statements contain full and unambiguous meaning. When you write directly\nand explicitly, you help your readers understand your message and you show respect for\ntheir time.\ncar88340_ch10_294-333.indd 300\n10/16/19 9:02 AM\nPERSUASIVE MESSAGES CHAPTER TEN 301\nTABLE 10.1\nEffective Attention-Getters\nType of Attention-Getter\nExample\nRhetorical question\nDid you know that average credit union members save $400 per year compared to bank\ncustomers?\nIntriguing statistic\nIn the past five years, we’ve lost over 200 members—over 10 percent of our membership.\nCompelling and\nunusual fact(s)\nYou’ve probably heard car dealers boast about their near-zero percent interest rates—but\nthere’s a catch! By financing with car dealers, you give up your opportunity to receive\nmanufacturer rebates and your power to negotiate on price.\nChallenge\nPlease join our team in this year’s Hope Walkathon in the fight against breast cancer.\nTestimonial\n“I never knew I could have so much negotiating power with a preapproved loan. By getting\nmy car loan through Better Horizons, I negotiated a great deal with the car dealer. This is\nthe way to buy cars!”\nCompared to other business messages, persuasive messages are sometimes more\nindirect and implicit. They are sometimes indirect in that they provide the rationale for\na request before making the specific request. They are sometimes implicit in that the\nrequest or some of the rationale for the request may be implied. In other words, sometimes the reader needs to read between the lines to grasp the entire meaning. Implicit\nstatements politely ask people to do or think differently. Also, explicitly stating some\ntypes of benefits is considered poor form—for example, matters of financial or career\ngain in internal persuasive requests.14\nAttention The first task of most persuasive messages is to gain the attention of your\nreaders. You can do this in a variety of ways, including asking a rhetorical question,\nproviding a compelling or interesting fact, revealing a compelling statistic, issuing a\nchallenge, or posting a testimonial.15 For internal persuasive messages, the primary\nmeans of gaining attention is demonstrating a business need—a gap between what is and\nwhat could be.16 You generally have more flexibility in external persuasive messages as\nyou choose your attention-getters. See Table 10.1 for examples of attention-getters Haniz\nmight use for some of her communication tasks.\nNeed, Solution, and Rationale In the body of your message, your first task is to\ntie your product, service, or idea to the needs of your readers. The best way to reduce\nthe resistance your reader may have is to show that your message meets your readers’\nneeds. Once you’ve stated the need, you may describe your solution, which is a recommended product, service, or idea. Many readers will remain skeptical unless you provide convincing support. So, you will need to provide a strong rationale, meaning solid\nreasons why your product, service, or idea really benefits them. After all, you are more\nthan likely attempting to influence skeptics.17\nAs you structure your message, consider how direct you should be. If your audience\nmembers are strongly and emotionally resistant to your solution, consider a more indirect approach so they warm up to your ideas before you suggest a solution. To make\nyour message less direct, provide the rationale before the solution.\nValidation At some point in the body of the message, you should validate your readers by showing appreciation for their views, preferences, and concerns. Validation implies\nthat you recognize and appreciate others’ needs, wants, ideas, and preferences as legitimate and reasonable, “especially when they are different than your own.” By validating\nyour readers, you show respect for them and demonstrate a balanced perspective.18\ncar88340_ch10_294-333.indd 301\n10/16/19 9:02 AM\n302 PART FOUR TYPES OF BUSINESS MESSAGES\nCounterpoints Traditionally, communicators overcame objections by providing\ncounterpoints to any of the audience members’ objections. In other words, they showed\nhow their own ideas, products, or services were superior to the competing ideas, products, or services the audience favored.\nOvercoming objections with counterpoints, however, is risky in the post-trust era. This\napproach may unnecessarily carry a me-versus-you tone and delegitimize the readers’ concerns. Michael Maslansky, in his research about emerging trends in sales messages in the\nPTE, states that validation is “using words to let people know that their concerns are\nvalid,” and that it is the “polar opposite of overcoming objections.”19 He says the “new\nsales mantra [is to] agree with objections.”20 This perhaps ironic approach shows respect\nand balance because you validate the potential customer’s feelings and ideas. When you\nvalidate your readers, they are more likely to accept the merits of your persuasive message.\nThus, consider carefully whether to include counterpoints to your readers’ objections. When you know people well and believe that you will not create a me-versus-you\nadversarial stance, tactfully state how your ideas, products, and services outperform\nthose of your readers.\nSkilled business communicators understand that building support for their ideas\ntakes time. Especially for persuasion within companies, you will generally use a mix of\ncommunication channels. Rarely will your ideas be accepted and enacted with one written message. However, one written message can make a powerful statement and open\navenues of communication that lead to acceptance and adoption of your ideas.\nAction You conclude persuasive messages with a call to action, which asks your readers\nto take a specific step toward the purchase of a product or service or acceptance of an idea.\nHowever, a call to action should not be a hard sell; pressuring others is increasingly ineffective in the PTE.21 In external persuasive messages, the call to action is typically a specific\nand explicit step. In internal persuasive messages, the call to action is sometimes explicit\nand sometimes implicit. It is more likely to be implicit for controversial change ideas and\nwhen corresponding with superiors who have ultimate decision-making authority.\nGetting the Tone and Style Right for Persuasive Messages\nLO10.3 E\n xplain how the\ntone and style\nof persuasive\nmessages impact\ntheir influence.\n®\nVisit http://connect.\nmheducation.com for an\nexercise on this topic.\nThe tone for persuasive messages should be confident and positive, yet at the same time\navoid exaggeration or hype. This is tricky! You will no doubt need to make some trade-offs.\nThe more confident and positive you make your message, the more you risk being perceived\nas pushy or exaggerated. As you reduce confidence and positivity, you risk your product,\nservice, or idea being perceived as weak or unexciting. One benefit of asking colleagues to\nread your persuasive message before you send it is they can help you decide if you have\nachieved the right level of confidence and positivity without sacrificing believability.\nThe writing style of your message should be action-oriented and lively. But again, you\nrisk being perceived as unbelievable or overly enthusiastic if you overdo the language.\nHowever, you risk being perceived as dull or unexceptional if you don’t use engaging,\nlively language. Proofreading by yourself and with the help of colleagues will help you\nget the right writing style to set your message apart.\nApply the Personal Touch\nTone\nStyle\nWrite\nDesign\ncar88340_ch10_294-333.indd 302\nRecently, a number of competing developers delivered presentations to a property\nowner, each hoping to persuade him to sell them 4,000 acres of much-sought-after property. The presentations were nearly identical, so the property owner was unsure how to\nchoose the best developer. A few days later, the property owner received a handwritten\nthank-you note from one candidate. The property owner immediately awarded the deal\nto that developer because he had taken the time to write a message of appreciation.22\nOften, your competitors are nearly identical to you. Your colleagues and customers\nwill be more easily persuaded when you show interest in them personally, speak to\nthem in personal terms, understand their specific needs, and demonstrate that you are\n10/16/19 9:02 AM\nPERSUASIVE MESSAGES CHAPTER TEN 303\nseeking benefits for them. Personalizing your messages is not easy, though, as Michael\nMaslansky points out:\nFor all of us, selling ideas or products or ourselves begins with a need to talk about something that we have and the audience should need, want, or agree with. The problem is that\ntoo often, we focus on the first part—what we want to sell, and too little on the second—why\nthey want to buy . . . and yet, our audience demands increasingly that messages, products,\nand services speak directly to them.23\nCreating messages that speak directly to customers and colleagues requires that you\nuse language that helps your customers and colleagues feel the product, service, or idea\nis just for them.24\nOne of the primary strategies you can use to personalize persuasive messages is\nyour selection of voice—either you-voice, we-voice, I-voice, or impersonal voice (as\nintroduced in Chapter 2). Table 10.2 offers guidance on choosing the appropriate\nGuidelines\nfor Tone for\nPersuasive\nMessages\n• Apply the personal\ntouch.\n• Use action-oriented,\nlively language.\n• Write with confidence.\n• Offer choice.\n• Show positivity.\nTABLE 10.2\nVoice in Persuasive Messages\nVoice\nAppropriate Cases\nCautions\nExamples\nYou-voice\nUse in external\npersuasive\nmessages to\nemphasize reader\nbenefits.\nPresumptuousness—\nassuming you know\nwhat is good for\nsomeone else\nWhen you take out an auto loan, you get a variety of resources\nto help you in your car shopping, including a free copy of a Kelley\nBlue Book, access to free Carfax reports, Mechanical Breakdown\nInsurance (MBI), and Guaranteed Auto Protection (GAP).\nUse in internal\npersuasive\nmessages to\nemphasize shared\nwork goals.\nPresumptuousness—\nassuming you\nshare common\nbeliefs, ideas, or\nunderstanding with\nyour colleagues\nWe-voice\nIn this example, you-voice helps show direct benefits to the\ncustomers. Overuse across an entire message, however, may\ncome across as presumptuous, overbearing, or exaggerated.\nAt Better Horizons, we’ve instilled a personal touch into every\naspect of our business. We’ve reinforced this culture with\nface-to-face services. Our tellers welcome members by name.\nWhen members come into the credit union, they know we\ncare about them as people, not just as customers. The warm,\nfriendly, genuine, and personal approach we take to serving\nour members is why I’m so proud to work here.\nIn this passage, we-voice instills a sense of shared values,\npriorities, and goals. We-voice can instill a strong sense of\nteamwork. When audience members have different\nperspectives, however, they may resent that you are stating\nagreement where it does not exist.\nI-voice\nUse in all\npersuasive\nmessages sparingly.\nOveruse implies\nself-centeredness\nAfter examining the results of other credit unions, I am\nconvinced that these tools can build emotional connections\nand loyalty with our members.\nIn this example, I-voice is used to show a personal opinion\nand shows respect for audience members who are not yet\nfully persuaded. Frequent use of I-voice across an entire\nmessage, however, may come across as emphasizing your\ninterests rather than those of the audience.\nImpersonal\nvoice\ncar88340_ch10_294-333.indd 303\nUse in persuasive\nmessages to\nemphasize\nobjectivity and\nneutrality.\nOveruse may\ndepersonalize\nthe message\nThe basic difference between credit unions and banks is that\ncredit union members own and control their credit unions\nwhereas bank account holders have no stake or control in\ntheir financial institutions.\nIn this example, impersonal voice helps show objectivity. An\nentire persuasive message in impersonal voice, however, may\nfail to connect on a personal level with the audience.\n10/16/19 9:02 AM\n304 PART FOUR TYPES OF BUSINESS MESSAGES\nvoice. Generally, you-voice is more effective in external persuasive messages to customers and clients because it emphasizes the benefits they receive from your products and\nservices. From the customer’s perspective, the you-voice shows them that they are the\ncenter of attention.\nWriting in the you-voice to customers is more than just a stylistic choice. It forces\nyou to consciously consider the readers’ needs and wants. It forces you to personalize\nthe message for them. By contrast, the we-voice in external messages can focus too\nmuch attention on your company and de-emphasize benefits to the customer. Notice\nthe difference in overall tone in the two messages in Figures 10.4 and 10.5. In the less\neffective example, the you-voice is hardly used at all compared to the dominating wevoice. In the more effective example, the you-voice takes center stage over the we-voice.\nThe extensive use of you-voice in the more effective message sends a strong meta message: This message is about you.\nAnother method of personalizing a message is to make your statements tangible. By\ndefinition, tangible means something can be touched; it is material or substantial. In a\nbusiness communications context, making the statement tangible implies that the readers can discern something in terms that are meaningful to them. This allows the reader\nto sense the impact on a personal level.25 You often can achieve a tangible feel by combining you-voice with specificity. Consider the examples in Table 10.3, from messages\nthat Haniz is working on for the credit union.\nAs you reread your message, keep in mind the following advice from sales specialist\nRalph Allora: “Read the letter aloud. If it doesn’t sound like you’re having a conversation with the client over the phone, then you’re not using the right tone.”26 This in part\nis a test of whether you have personalized your message enough.\nTABLE 10.3\nMaking Tangible Statements\nLess Effective\nMore Effective\nCredit unions save members about $8 billion a year thanks\nto better interest rates and reduced fees.\nOn average, credit union members save $400 each year\ncompared to bank customers thanks to lower loan rates\nand fees.\nThe benefit is not tangible. Customers are not sure what\nthe benefit would be for them personally.\nThis benefit is tangible; the customers know how much\nthey will save on an individual level.\nIn recent years, many credit unions have lost membership\nbecause younger individuals are not attracted to them.\nIn the past five years, we’ve lost over 200 members—over\n10 percent of our membership. And we simply aren’t\nattracting younger members.\nThis statement focuses on a general trend for credit\nunions but does not indicate an impact on a particular\ncredit union.\nThis statement invokes a sense of what is happening right\nhere at our credit union. Identifying the amount (as well as\na percentage) helps the reader discern the impact.\nWe provide lower rates on car loans. Our car loan rates\nare between 1.5 and 1.75 percentage points lower than\nat any of the banks in town.\nYou pay lower rates on car loans. You can get car loan\nrates at Better Horizons that are 1.5–1.75 percentage points\nlower than at any other bank in town. Consider the savings:\n• On a 4-year $15,000 new car loan: You save about $680.\n• On a 4-year $5,000 used car loan: You save about $200.\nThis statement doesn’t help the customers understand\nhow much in dollars they would save on a car loan at\nBetter Horizons.\nThis statement allows customers to easily think about how\nmuch savings they would receive by getting a car loan\nwith Better Horizons.\ncar88340_ch10_294-333.indd 304\n10/16/19 9:02 AM\nPERSUASIVE MESSAGES CHAPTER TEN 305\nTABLE 10.4\nUsing Action-Oriented and Lively Language\nLess Effective\nMore Effective\nThe Betty Williams Breast Center has a nationally\naccredited program for treatment of breast cancer.\nThe Betty Williams Breast Center runs a nationally\naccredited program for treatment of breast cancer.\nThe weak verb has implies little action on the part of the\nBetty Williams Breast Center.\nThe action verb runs implies a full-fledged and active effort\non the part of the Betty Williams Breast Center.\nBetter Horizons has always been known for its personal\napproach to our members. Our transactions have always\noccurred through face-to-face services. Our tellers are\nfriendly to all members.\nAt Better Horizons, we’ve instilled a personal touch\ninto every aspect of our business. We’ve reinforced this\nculture with face-to-face services. Our tellers welcome\nmembers by name. When members come into the credit\nunion, they know we care about them as people, not just\nas customers.\nUses unexciting, weak verbs: has been known, have\noccurred, are (notice how passive verbs detract from\na sense of action and engagement). The central theme\nof personalized service does not come through. For\nexample, consider the contrast between our tellers are\nfriendly versus our tellers welcome members by name.\nUses a positive, diverse set of action verbs: instilled,\nreinforced, welcome, care. Uses adjectives and nouns to\nfurther emphasize a central theme of personalized service:\npersonal touch, face-to-face services, name.\nUse Action-Oriented and Lively Language\nIn persuasive messages, you have somewhat more license to write creatively. Focus on\nusing action-oriented and lively words to achieve a sense of excitement, optimism, or\nother positive emotions. Use strong nouns and verbs to add to the excitement of the\nmessage. Some sales messages sound dull because of overuse of and reliance on words\nsuch as provide and offer.27 Across the entire message or thought, the action-oriented\nand lively language should emphasize a central theme. See Table 10.4 for examples from\ndocuments Haniz is working on for two of her projects.\nWrite with Confidence\nAs you display more confidence in your idea, your product, or your service, you can\nmore effectively influence your audience. Effective persuaders provide compelling\nand simple reasons for action. They should show confidence in these ideas, as illustrated in Table 10.5, again with examples from two of Haniz’s projects. Emotionally,\nthe writer’s confidence allows the audience to gain confidence in the message. In\ninternal persuasive messages, expressing confidence in key players, who can make the\nchange occur, is crucial. These key players include upper-level executives who will\nactively endorse and authorize resources as well as those managers and employees\nwho will put the ideas into motion.28\nOffer Choice\nMichael Maslansky and his research team have examined the reactions of tens of thousands of customers and clients to many types of written messages. In this section, we\nillustrate a few findings from the financial industry. For example, in Figure 10.1, you see\nfour statements that were sent to respondents. In the hypothetical scenario that was\npresented to them, a company is attempting to do a good thing—give its employees an\nopportunity to put money in a retirement account.\ncar88340_ch10_294-333.indd 305\n10/16/19 9:02 AM\n306 PART FOUR TYPES OF BUSINESS MESSAGES\nTABLE 10.5\nWriting with Confidence\nLess Effective\nMore Effective\nIf the executive team is interested, we could share more\ninformation about how we arrived at our conclusions.\nWe are eager to meet with the executive team and\npresent our findings and recommendations in more\ndetail. Could we set a time within the next two weeks\nto share with the team?\nThis statement is unassertive and, by extension, not\nconfident. It does not show conviction in her message.\nThese statements imply confidence in the writer’s\nmessage and confidence that a meeting will further\nher goals. These statements maintain a respectful tone.\nPlease think about how Better Horizons can help you in\nyour banking.\nWe encourage you to stop by Better Horizons and make\ndirect comparisons with your current bank. You’ll find that\nbanking with Better Horizons saves you money, provides\nconvenience when you travel, and offers services to meet\nnearly any banking need.\nThis nonspecific request sounds weak and not confident.\nIt gives the reader an excuse to easily dismiss the\nmessage.\nThis request lays down a challenge to make direct\ncomparisons, confidently implying that Better Horizons\ncan outperform competitors. It then directly states specific\nbenefits to the potential member.\nThe four statements state essentially the same thing but are phrased differently.\nEach is written fairly well and appeals to some individuals. The statement that\nappeals to the most people (40 percent) emphasizes choice rather than intent. It\nuses the you-voice rather than the we-voice, which is preferable for many messages\nwritten to consumers (this is most similar to a consumer situation). It contains three\nshort sentences with 7, 2, and 29 words. The emphasis on choice (other-orientation),\nFIGURE 10.1\nMost Effective\nStatements to\nPersuade Skeptical\nEmployees (Creating\nSalary Deduction for\n401[k] Scenario)\nSource: Maslansky, M., S. West, &\nG.DeMoss, (2010). The language of\ntrust: Selling ideas in a world of\nskeptics. Van Kampen Investor\nServices, Inc.\nNote: The survey involved a\nhypothetical situation where\nemployers would automatically\ndeduct 7 percent of an employee’s\nsalary and place it into a 401(k).\nThis process would help\nemployees save money for the\nfuture. The employees would have\nthe option to opt-out.\nStatement #1: This process is automatic, but not required. It’s voluntary.\nIf you don’t want to be enrolled or you don’t like any of the choices we\nmade, you can always opt-down to a lower level or opt-out.\n40\\%\nStatement #2: We have established the investment rate and default\noption based on general retirement guidelines, but you may change\nyour investment rate or stop participating in the plan at any time.\n23\\%\nStatement #3: We do not want to tell you what to do with the money,\nbut we do want to help you understand your options and make the\nmost of the money that you do save for retirement.\n22\\%\nStatement #4: We believe we have a responsibility to provide you with\ninformation and guidance about the most effective strategies for saving\nand investing to achieve your retirement goals.\n15\\%\nPercentage of Employees Who Preferred Statement\ncar88340_ch10_294-333.indd 306\n10/16/19 9:02 AM\nPERSUASIVE MESSAGES CHAPTER TEN 307\nTABLE 10.6\nEmphasizing Choice\nLess Effective\nMore Effective\nYou owe it to the women in your lives to make a\ndifference.\nYou can help make a difference for women here in our\ncommunity.\nThis appeal focuses on obligation and pressure. Most\nreaders will not respond positively.\nThis appeal focuses on volunteerism and contribution to\nthe community without telling the readers what to do.\nThe walkathon will be held on Saturday, October 6 at\n9:00 a.m. at Central Park. Do your part to improve the\nlives of women in our community!\nThe walkathon will be held on Saturday, October 6 at\n9:00 a.m. at Central Park. Please join Betty and the rest of\nthe Better Horizons team for a day of fun, excitement, and\nhope!\nThis request is a guilt trip; it emphasizes the readers’ duty.\nThis request recognizes the readers’ choice to participate\nin a fun and exciting approach to a good cause.\nuse of you-voice (other-orientation), and simple language combine to make this the\nmost influential statement. By contrast, the other options each contain one long\nsentence (30, 36, and 27 words).\nIn the PTE, customers and clients consider choice an indicator of credibility. They\nview simple language (not implying lack of sophisticated knowledge) as a display of\ntransparency and respect. In contrast, they view overly complex language as potentially deceptive.29 Similarly, effective persuasive messages avoid statements that may\nbe perceived as pressure tactics. Hard sells are increasingly ineffective in a PTE, especially in written format.30 Compare Haniz’s less effective and more effective persuasive statements in Table 10.6, all of which you will see again in her messages located\nlater in the chapter.\nIn persuasive messages, always be careful about being perceived as presumptuous—\nunfairly assuming that you know or even share the thoughts, feelings, and intentions of\nothers. Many people are easily offended when you presume to know or even dictate how\nthey will think, feel, or react to your messages.31\nShow Positivity\nPositivity in persuasive messages helps your audience focus on the benefits rather\nthan the drawbacks of what you are trying to promote. Maslansky and his team’s\nresearch helps demonstrate that subtle changes to more positive wording are generally more persuasive. For example, they asked consumers to identify which of three\npairs of phrases were more persuasive in promotional material about investment\noptions.\nIn the first pair of statements, 90 percent of consumers thought the statement making sure you have enough money as long as you live was more effective than the statement\nmanaging longevity risk. Overwhelmingly, the consumers thought the benefit (having\nlong-term financial security) was more influential than the possible drawback (avoiding\nfinancial loss).\nFor the second pair of statements, 81 percent of consumers thought the statement\nmaking sure you can afford to maintain your lifestyle was more persuasive than the statement managing inflation risk. Similarly, the vast majority of consumers in the case\nthought that the benefit (maintaining your lifestyle) was more compelling than the\ndrawback (possibly losing your current buying power).\ncar88340_ch10_294-333.indd 307\n10/16/19 9:02 AM\n308 PART FOUR TYPES OF BUSINESS MESSAGES\nTABLE 10.7\nStatements to Avoid in the Post-Trust Era\nType\nExamples That Don’t Work\nTrust me\n“Trust me” or “We speak your language”\nUnbelievable\n“Your call is important to us” or “We care about our customers”\nToo good to be true\n“This is the right product for you” or “We give you guaranteed results”\nExcuses\n“What you need to understand is . . .” or “Our hands are tied”\nExplanations\n“This was taken out of context” or “I can explain”\nFear tactics\n“Are you concerned about the security of your family?” or “Act now or you’ll miss this opportunity”\nSource: Maslansky, M., West, S., & DeMoss, G. (2010). The language of trust: Selling ideas in a world of skeptics. Van Kampen Investor Services, Inc.\nFor the third pair of statements, 63 percent of consumers thought the statement\nmaking sure you can participate in the gains while reducing your downside risk was more\npersuasive than managing market risk. In this case, consumers were more positively\ninfluenced by the statement about risk (a drawback) when it was preceded by a phrase\nabout gains (the benefit).32\nIn addition to being positive, avoiding superlatives gives you the best chance of persuading your audience. Phrases such as best product on the market, state-of-the-art technology, or best-in-class service sound increasingly hollow. Maslansky’s research with\nconsumers shows that terms such as comfortable retirement rather than dream retirement; protection rather than guarantee; financial security rather than financial freedom;\neffective rather than best of breed are more persuasive.\nConsumers perceive too-good-to-be-true statements as attempts to convince them of\n“the merits without making a rational argument. And they [too-good-to-be-true statements] fail because they suggest an inherent bias that ruins the integrity of the communicator.”33 Table 10.7 highlights the kinds of phrases that are increasingly ineffective\nwith today’s skeptical consumers. Table 10.8 contrasts messages from Haniz’s projects\nthat persuade with and without exaggeration.\nTABLE 10.8\nAvoiding Exaggeration and Superlatives\nLess Effective\nMore Effective\nYou can trust us at Better Horizons to make your financial\ndreams come true.\nAs a nonprofit, member-controlled financial institution,\nBetter Horizons can provide you with higher rates on\nsavings accounts, better terms on loans, and lower fees.\nThis statement uses phrases that seem unbelievable (you\ncan trust us) and exaggerated (make your financial\ndreams come true). It is positive but not plausible.\nThis statement focuses on specific benefits and uses\nwords that nearly all people view positively (nonprofit,\nmember-controlled, savings, better, lower fees). It is both\npositive and plausible.\nPay attention to these facts or risk losing money to banks.\nConsider some of the following reasons to join Better\nHorizons and start saving today.\nThis statement focuses on fear and applies pressure. Most\ncustomers would consider the writer not credible.\nThis statement is inviting and nonthreatening. It uses pressurefree (consider) and positive (join, start saving) words.\ncar88340_ch10_294-333.indd 308\n10/16/19 9:02 AM\nPERSUASIVE MESSAGES CHAPTER TEN 309\nCreating Internal Persuasive Messages\nInternal and external persuasive messages contain many common elements: They gain\nattention, raise a need, deliver a solution, provide a rationale, show appreciation for differences of opinion, give counterpoints, and call readers to action. Nevertheless, internal\nand external persuasive messages differ in some ways (see Table 10.9). Internal messages more often focus on promoting ideas, whereas external messages more often\nfocus on promoting products and services. Also, internal persuasive messages tend to\nbe slightly more direct and explicit, and they tend to be based more so on logical\nappeals. In contrast, external persuasive messages tend to be slightly more indirect and\nimplicit, and they often rely heavily on emotional appeals.\nLO10.4 \nCreate compelling\ninternal persuasive\nmessages.\n®\nVisit http://connect.\nmheducation.com for an\nexercise on this topic.\nInfluencing a Superior\nYou often rely on your supervisors and other superiors to work on interesting projects\nand follow through on ideas of interest. Christine asked Haniz to work on a plan to\nattract younger members to the credit union. When Haniz thought the report was\nready, Christine said, “Haniz, send me an email with the report. I’ll forward it to the\nexecutive team. Several members of that group are always naysayers, so we want to\nmake sure you can present to them and field their questions.” In the less effective\nmessage (see Figure 10.2), Haniz shows little confidence and specificity in the new\nideas. The message generally contains short, dull, and nontangible comments.\nIn the more effective message (see Figure 10.3), Haniz begins with a tangible business problem. Then, she tactfully discusses her ideas and concludes with calls to\naction. The message contains conviction without sounding too pushy. This message\nwill open avenues for constructive conversations when Haniz and Christine meet with\nthe executive team.\nTABLE 10.9\nComponents of Internal and External Persuasive Messages\nInternal Messages (Typically for Ideas)\nExternal Messages (Typically for\nProducts and Services)\nAttention\nOverview of a business problem\nCatchy statement\nNeed\nDescription of a business problem\nDescription of unmet needs or wants of your\ncustomers\nSolution\nDescription of how your idea or policy\naddresses the business problem\nDescription of how your product or service\nbenefits customers\nRationale\nElaboration about why your idea or policy is\nthe best option\nElaboration about why your product or service\nwill benefit the customer\nAppreciation\nAppreciation for decision makers’ perspectives\nand resistance to your ideas\nRecognition of customers’ resistance to your\nproduct or service\nCounterpoints\nExplanation of why your ideas are better\nthan competing ideas (typically those of\ndecision makers who comprise your target\naudience)\nExplanation of why your product/service is\nbetter than competing products/services\n(typically those favored by the target audience)\nAction\nRecommendations for a course of action\nor further discussion about an idea or policy\nDescription of a specific step for the\ncustomer to take toward purchase of a product\nor service\ncar88340_ch10_294-333.indd 309\n10/24/19 9:58 PM\n310 PART FOUR TYPES OF BUSINESS MESSAGES\nFIGURE 10.2\nLess Effective Internal Persuasive Message\nTo…\nChristine Russo\nSubject:\nFinancial Planning\nReport.pdf\nHey Christine,\nNEED is nontangible.\nGains ATTENTION ineffectively.\nIn recent years, many credit unions have lost membership because younger individuals are not attracted to credit\nunions. Particularly disconcerting is the fact that our membership continues to get older. Only 5 percent of our\nmembers are under the age of 30. You should take this problem seriously and join me by acting now to turn\nthings around.\nSOLUTION is vague and the RATIONALE\nis nonspecific and likely exaggerated.\nI’ve learned through extensive research that younger people want financial security and they want financial planning.\nMy plan is to highlight financial planning in our marketing. I recommend we adopt an aggressive campaign\ntargeting college students. We will undoubtedly capture a large part of the local market by doing so.\nFails to show VALIDATION of other perspectives.\nSeveral of our colleagues think this is a waste of resources to go after younger members. This is simply the wrong\nway to view this situation. Anyone who isn’t seeing the need to invest in marketing to younger people doesn’t\nhave a long-term vision.\nPlease see the attached docs with more info. If the executive team is interested, we could share more information\nabout how we arrived at our conclusions.\nBest,\nHaniz\nConcludes with nonspecific,\nperhaps insincere, call to ACTION.\nTONE is bossy, not\nappreciative of differences.\nInfluencing Employees\nIn Figures 10.4 and 10.5, you can see a less effective and a more effective example of\nChristine asking employees to volunteer as mentors to new employees. In the less effective example, Christine comes across as bossy and demanding. Leaders rarely capture\nthe hearts and minds of their employees when they fail to offer choice, portray problems in excessively negative terms, and don’t validate legitimate concerns. You’ll notice\nthat Christine makes all these mistakes in the less effective example. In the more effective example, Christine offers choice throughout the message, appeals to shared purpose throughout the message, offers a positive vision, and validates the employees’ real\nconcerns about time commitments. Although this is a relatively simple message, Christine\nis likely to inspire many employees to volunteer as mentors as long as employees view\nher as credible and sincere.\nLO10.5 \nExplain how\nto influence\nprofessionals with\nvarious decisionmaking styles.\ncar88340_ch10_294-333.indd 310\nTaking Initiative, Showing Persistence, and Adapting to Various\nDecision-Making Styles\nIn practice, persuasion may a long time. It requires initiative and it requires persistence.\nIt often takes many conversations and many written messages. It usually requires courage to start the conversation and determination to gain the commitment of others. Successful businessman and Wall Street Journal writer Andy Kessler suggests persuasion\nrequires at least five touch points with decision makers. He suggests five meetings in the\nfollowing pattern: the sniff, the story, the data, the ask, and the close.34 Kessler’s point\nis clear: You should view persuasion as a process with several stages.\n10/24/19 9:58 PM\nPERSUASIVE MESSAGES CHAPTER TEN 311\nFIGURE 10.3\nMore Effective Internal Persuasive Message\nTo…\nChristine Russo\nSubject:\nOffering Financial Planning Services to Our Local College Students\nCredit-Unions-Millennials.pdf; Focus-Groups.pdf; Financial-Planning-Mkt-Plan.pdf\nGains ATTENTION\neffectively and\nintroduces SOLUTION.\nDear Christine:\nIn the past five years, we’ve lost over 200 members—over 10 percent of our membership. This is largely\nbecause we are not attracting younger members. Ten years ago, nearly a quarter of our members were\nunder the age of 30. Now, less than 5 percent are! Unless we can attract younger members, we risk a\nsteady decline in membership over the next decade.\nWe have tried various approaches to attract younger members, including increasing our social media\npresence and creating additional online account and lending services. Our younger members appreciate\nthese new services, but they have not attracted new members.\nProvides\ncompelling\nNEED.\nOver the past three months, our marketing team has researched what younger people (18 to 25 years old)\nwant most in financial services. We have explored industry reports and held 12 focus groups at three\nlocal colleges. Consistently, we find younger people are anxious about their future financial security and\nhold a strong interest in personalized financial planning.\nAs a result, we recommend Better Horizons invest in a marketing campaign focused on local college\nstudents. Specifically, we recommend this campaign should include the following:\nIntroduces and\ndescribes\nSOLUTION.\n• A series of financial workshops at local colleges\n• A free app with a focus on personalized financial literacy and planning\n• An advertising campaign about financial planning\nYou’ll find three attachments that elaborate our views: a research report written by a leading credit union\nconsultancy group that includes findings and recommendations about gaining younger members in credit\nunions, a summary of findings from our focus groups, and a detailed plan with a cost summary.\nWe anticipate drawing up to 100 new members with an aggressive marketing campaign. Our estimate is\nbased on a .5 percent conversion rate (local colleges have roughly 20,000 students). This estimate adopts\nassumptions in line with three recent cases of credit unions using these strategies.\nSeveral colleagues think we’re unlikely to gain many new members—especially younger members—by\nfocusing on financial planning. We agree this plan bears some risk, but we also base our recommendations\non reliable research and projections. Further, several cases in the attached report show how other credit\nunions have successfully gained younger members by emphasizing financial planning (see the “Financial\nPlanning Services” section of the attached industry report).\nProvides\nRATIONALE\nfor solution.\nShows\nAPPRECIATION for\nother perspectives and\nsubtly offers\nCOUNTERPOINTS.\nWe are eager to meet with the executive team and present our findings and recommendations in more\ndetail. Could we set a time within the next two weeks to share with the team?\nBest,\nHaniz\nConcludes with\ncall to ACTION.\nEffective persuaders also learn to recognize various decision-making styles. Gary\nWilliams and Robert Miller studied the decision-making styles of 1,600 executives.\nThey found most executives can be classified in the following ways based on their\ndecision-making approaches: charismatics, thinkers, skeptics, followers, and controllers. Typically, executives have adopted these styles because they led to success in their\nearly careers. Williams and Miller found that the content of half of all persuasion\nattempts are mismatched with the decision-making style of decision makers.35\ncar88340_ch10_294-333.indd 311\n®\nVisit http://connect.\nmheducation.com for an\nexercise on this topic.\n10/24/19 9:59 PM\n312 PART FOUR TYPES OF BUSINESS MESSAGES\nFIGURE 10.4\nLess Effective Message to Employees\nTo…\nBHCU Employees\nSubject:\nMentoring Program\nDear Employees:\nCurrently, nearly one in three of our new employees leaves within the first six months. This is\nunacceptable. Each time we lose an employee, it costs at least $20,000 to hire and train another\nemployee. It also reflects poorly on the culture of our organization.\nEffective in two months, we will initiate a mentoring program to help early-career employees feel more\ncomfortable and satisfied at BHCU. We need to make sure that we reduce defections by at least half. i’m\ncalling on you to serve as a mentor. Although you’re busy, it’s critical we do more to integrate new\nemployees into our organization. Without your help, I fear that we will continue to suffer high turnover and\nlow morale among our new employees.\nI’d like you to contact Lily Sanchez immediately to show your interest in this program. She will assign you\nto a new employee. Mentoring will take just three or four hours per month, so it’s really not a big\ncommitment. I guarantee you will love the opportunity to shape the future of these new employees.\nThere are two information sessions about the mentoring program: June 15 from 9 to 10 a.m. and June 16\nfrom 1 to 2 p.m. Remember to contact Lily by June 12 about your interest in these information sessions\nand your availability as a mentor.\nThank you for your commitment to Better Horizons!\nChristine Russo\nThis message fails to offer meaningful choice and\nstates the problem in excessively negative terms. It\ndoes not validate the concern that mentoring\nrequires a major time commitment.\nHaniz and Christine would like the executive team to approve a new campaign to\nyounger prospects that focuses on financial planning. They can tailor their persuasion\nto the most important decision makers. You’ll read about the decision-making types\nand how Haniz and Christine can adapt their approach.\nFollowers make decisions based on what has worked in the past. They are quite riskaverse and tend to follow how other successful executives have made similar decisions.\nTo persuade followers, use references, testimonials, and successful precedents. They\nwant to feel sure they’re making a good decision. Followers comprise roughly 36 percent of executives.\nIf Haniz and Christine know a key decision maker is a follower, they should more\nprominently feature similar examples that have worked in the past. They might even\narrange a conference call with someone at another credit union or bank who has\nimplemented a similar strategy. Their goal should be to show the strategy is safe and\nproven.\nCharismatics tend to get excited when they hear new ideas. They are enthusiastic and\ntalkative. Yet, they’ve often made mistakes by making decisions based on their initial\nexcitement. They ultimately make decisions based on simple but factual arguments that\nfocus on results. Charismatics are less fearful of risk and most likely to act quickly. To\npersuade charismatics, avoid the instinct to join in their excitement. Stay measured in\nyour arguments, lay out the benefits of your argument in straightforward terms, use\nvisual aids, and provide clear next steps. Charismatics comprise roughly 25 percent of\nexecutives.\ncar88340_ch10_294-333.indd 312\n10/16/19 9:02 AM\nPERSUASIVE MESSAGES CHAPTER TEN 313\nFIGURE 10.5\nMore Effective Message to Employees\nTo…\nBHCU Employees\nSubject:\nCreating a Mentoring Program—We Need You!\nDear Colleagues:\nGain ATTENTION with an appeal\nto shared purpose and a request for\nhelp.\nDescribes a SOLUTION briefly in the\nopening and in more detail later on.\nWithin the next one to two months, we will formally start the BHCU Mentoring Program. This is an exciting way to\nconnect with new employees and help them in their careers. You have so much knowledge and experience to share\nwith our new employees. Please consider taking a mentoring role to make this new program a success.\nDescribes the NEED.\nCurrently, nearly one in three new employees leaves within the first six months. This is costly and disruptive. One\nmajor reason we’re creating a mentoring program is to boost employee retention. Studies show that mentoring can\nincrease retention by over 55 percent.\nWe also view a mentoring program as a key differentiator in attracting top talent. Research consistently shows that\nbetween 80 and 85 percent of early-career professionals seek mentoring programs. Yet, just 20 percent of employers\noffer mentoring. Among companies we complete against for local talent, none offer mentoring programs.\nDescribes RATIONALE in terms of company needs and individual benefits.\nWhile our primary goals of the mentorship program are attracting and retaining early-career professionals, we also\nview the program as an opportunity for our mentors. Mentoring is a rewarding way to meet and coach our early-career\nprofessionals. It lets you help shape the culture of our organization.\nWe envision a flexible and meaningful mentoring program. You would mentor one entry-level employee during\nhis/her first year at Better Horizons. Your would spend three to four hours per month with your mentee. Ideally,\nyou’d share an informal lunch or two with your mentee each month to talk about your areas of expertise and career\ndevelopment. Also, you’d involve your mentee in one of your projects so that he/she could get an up-close look at\nhow you add value to challenging and complex problems.\nI know mentoring can add to your busy schedule. We will help you succeed in this role and try to free up time by\nreducing some of your other responsibilities.\nWe will hold two information sessions about the mentoring program: June 15 from 9 to 10 a.m. and June 16 from\n1 to 2 p.m. You can learn more about the nature of mentoring and available resources at these information sessions.\nYou’ll also have the opportunity to ask any questions. Please RSVP for one of these sessions to Lily Sanchez by\nJune 12.\nIf you already know you’d like to serve as a mentor, please fill out this mentor volunteer form. Once you fill out the\nform, you’ll work directly with Lily to pair you up with the right mentee.\nSincerely,\nIncludes calls to ACTION that are based\non the principle of consistency.\nChristine Russo\nIf Haniz and Christine know a key decision maker is a charismatic, they should share\nthe benefits of their idea in a measured, visually appealing way. They should be clear\nabout the benefits, costs, and risks of the idea. Their goal should be to show the strategy\nis ambitious but well calculated.\nSkeptics are suspicious of every data point, especially those that run counter to\ntheir own views. They are argumentative, even combative. To persuade a skeptic, no\nissue is more important than credibility. They must trust you to even consider your\nviewpoints. If you don’t have time to establish credibility, you might consider aligning\ncar88340_ch10_294-333.indd 313\n10/16/19 9:02 AM\n314 PART FOUR TYPES OF BUSINESS MESSAGES\nyourself with someone the decision\nmaker trusts. Skeptics comprise roughly\n19 percent of executives.\nIf Haniz and Christine know a key\ndecision maker is a skeptic, they should\ncarefully prepare for a back-and-forth\nconversation. Yet, they should realize\nthat ultimately they must garner trust.\nThey might discuss the strategy with several of the skeptic’s close colleagues. If\nthese close colleagues agree with the\nstrategy, they can be enlisted to offer\ntheir views to the skeptic. The goal\nshould be to show the strategy is vetted\nby someone who is trusted.\nThinkers are impressed by data-driven\narguments. They make decisions slowly\nThe decision-making styles of others should influence your persuasion strategy. because they expect to see all possible\ndata and carefully conduct cost–benefit\nConvisum/123RF\nanalyses. They pride themselves on acting objectively and dispassionately. To persuade thinkers, make sure to have as much\ndata ready as possible, provide all perspectives, and give them time to carefully evaluate\nthe facts. Thinkers comprise roughly 11 percent of executives.\nIf Haniz and Christine know a key decision maker is a thinker, they should\ngather as much information as possible. They should recognize the thinker needs\nenough time to carefully evaluate all the information and form their own views.\nSo, they should send all of this information well in advance of a meeting. They\nshould be prepared to do more research based on the thinker’s questions. Their\ngoal should be to show the strategy has undergone objective, multisourced, timeintensive analysis.\nControllers dread uncertainty. They want all the facts in a structured manner, but\nthey want to form their own conclusions. They resent feeling pushed or persuaded by\nothers. To persuade controllers, give them as much information as possible. You might\neven periodically provide additional data to keep their attention on the issue. Yet, you\nshould allow them to make up their own minds and ideally feel like they are the ones\nwho came up with the solution. Controllers comprise roughly 9 percent of executives.\nIf Haniz and Christine know a key decision maker is a controller, they should prepare for a longer time until the decision is made. They might give the controller pieces\nof information periodically to keep the controller aware of the issue. Yet, they should\navoid pushing the controller too hard. Their goal should be to allow the controller to\nown the issue so he/she can claim it as his/her own.\nConstructing External Persuasive Messages\nLO10.6 \nCompose\ninfluential\nexternal\npersuasive\nmessages.\ncar88340_ch10_294-333.indd 314\nHaniz writes two external persuasive messages. The first is a flyer for community\nmembers who are participating in free financial planning and tax assistance workshops sponsored and led by Better Horizons. The second is an email encouraging\nBetter Horizons members to join the Hope Walkathon. The first message uses more\nlogical appeals. It deals with reasons Better Horizons is a better option than local\nbanks. The second message uses more emotional appeals. It focuses on pride in team\nand community, a sense of contribution to an important cause, and an exciting and\nhope-filled activity. It contains many facts but relies most heavily on garnering feelings of dedication and enthusiasm.\n10/16/19 9:02 AM\nPERSUASIVE MESSAGES CHAPTER TEN 315\nFIGURE 10.6\nLess Effective External Persuasive Message Based on Logical Appeals\nThis message does\nnot highlight key\nideas.\nBETTER HORIZONS CREDIT UNION\nEst. 1937\nThis message is not\npersonalized or\ntangible.\n8 Reasons to Join Better Horizons Credit Union\nCredit unions save members about $8 billion a year thanks to better interest rates and reduced fees.\nSo, you can trust us to make your financial dreams come true. Pay attention to these facts or risk losing\nmoney to banks:\n1.\n2.\n3.\n4.\n5.\n6.\n7.\n8.\nWe are a member-based organization. That means our members can have a voice. They can serve on\ncommittees and even be elected to the Board of Directors.\nWe provide lower rates on car loans. We offer car loan rates at between 1.5 and 1.75 percentage points\nlower than any of the banks in town.\nWe provide lower rates on unsecured loans. We offer unsecured loans at a full 2 percentage points\nlower than any bank.\nWe provide mortgages more conveniently and at lower costs to our members. For example, a 30-year\nmortgage is as low as 5.31 percent compared to rates of 5.35 to 5.42 percent at competitor banks in\ntown. The average closing costs are $1,900 compared to between $2,800 and $3,000 at competitor\nbanks.\nWe provide higher interest on checking and savings accounts. Currently, we offer between .3 and .5\npercentage points more interest than any bank in town.\nWe charge less in fees. For example, overdraft fees at Better Horizons are $19 compared to $35 to $50\nat other local banks.\nWe provide a free retirement and financial planning advisor. Better Horizons has always employed a\nfull-time financial planning advisor to help members with any of their financial planning questions.\nCredit unions are safer than banks. In the recent economic downturn, banks were five times more\nlikely to fail than credit unions. Better Horizons has always been in excellent financial condition, even\nduring economic downturns.\nPlease think about how Better Horizons can help you in your banking. Please stop by anytime and\nmeet with Ms. Norah Stevens or another membership specialist to learn more. Or, fill out the online\nmembership application. We look forward to seeing you!\n2737 Better Horizons Loop, Pescaloosa, FL 91214 • Phone: 803-784-7300 • Email: firstname.lastname@example.org • Web: www.bhcu.org\nNotice the differences between the less effective and more effective examples in\n igures 10.6 and 10.7. In the less effective message (Figure 10.6), most components of\nF\npersuasive messages are present except for a show of appreciation and a call to action.\nHowever, it employs we-voice when the potential customer should be the entire focus of\nthe message, and it does not provide tangible benefits.\nBy contrast, in the more effective flyer (Figure 10.7), Haniz wrote a message that\nemploys you-voice and describes tangible benefits to focus the entire message on the\ncustomer. The formatting makes each benefit stand out. The tangible statements\nhelp the customer quickly identify with the worth of the benefits; for example, saving\n$680 on a car loan (more effective message) is a far clearer benefit than paying 1.5\nto 1.75 percentage points less (as in the less effective message).\ncar88340_ch10_294-333.indd 315\n10/16/19 9:02 AM\n316 PART FOUR TYPES OF BUSINESS MESSAGES\nFIGURE 10.7\nMore Effective External Persuasive Message Based on Logical Appeals\nBETTER HORIZONS CREDIT UNION\nEst. 1937\nWhen You Join Better Horizons Credit Union, You’re Not a Customer–You’re an Owner\nEight Reasons to Join Better Horizons Credit Union\nGains ATTENTION.\nDid you know that average credit union members save $400 per year compared to bank customers? The\nbasic difference between credit unions and banks is that credit union members own and control their credit\nunions whereas bank account holders have no stake or control in their financial institutions. As a nonprofit,\nmember-controlled financial institution, Better Horizons can provide you with higher rates on savings accounts,\nbetter terms on loans, and lower fees. Consider some of the following reasons to join Better Horizons and start\nsaving today:\n1.\nYou come first. You are not just a customer; you are an owner and member. That means you have a voice in\nhow the credit union is run. You can serve on committees and even be elected to the Board of Directors.\n2.\nYou pay lower rates on car loans. You can get car loan rates that are between 1.5 and 1.75 percentage points\nlower than at any of the banks in town. Consider the savings:\n• On a 4-year $15,000 new car loan: You save about $680.\n• On a 4-year $5,000 used car loan: You save about $200.\n3.\n4.\n5.\nProvides a NEED and SOLUTION.\nYou pay lower rates on unsecured loans. You can get unsecured loans for unforeseen expenses at much\nlower rates at credit unions than banks. On average, unsecured loans are a full 2 percentage points\nlower than any bank. Consider the savings:\n• On a 3-year $15,000 unsecured loan: You save about $640.\nProvides RATIONALE.\n• On a 3-year $5,000 unsecured loan: You save about $215.\nYou can get mortgages more conveniently and at lower costs.\n• You can get mortgages approved within one business day at Better Horizons.\n• On a 30-year mortgage, you can get a rate as low as 5.31 percent compared to rates of 5.35 to\n5.42 percent at competitor banks in town. For a $200,000 mortgage, that amounts to a savings of\nbetween $1,800 and $4,900 over the course of the loan.\n• You can get closing costs that average $1,900 compared to between $2,800 and $3,000 at\ncompetitor banks.\nYou earn higher interest on your checking and savings accounts. Currently, you earn between .3 and .5\npercentage points more interest than at any bank in town. That can add up fast. For an account with an average\nof $5,000, that will bring you an extra $15 to $25 per year.\n6.\nYou pay less in fees. If banking fees bother you, credit unions are the place for you. Overdraft fees, late\npayment fees on credit cards, and many other fees are lower at Better Horizons than at any local bank. For\nexample, overdraft fees at Better Horizons are $19 compared to $35 to $50 at other local banks.\n7.\nYou will have a free retirement and financial planning advisor. Better Horizons has always employed a fulltime financial planning advisor who can help you with your financial planning questions.\n8.\nYour savings are safest at credit unions. In the recent economic downturn, banks were five times more\nlikely to fail than credit unions. Better Horizons has always been in excellent financial condition, even during\neconomic downturns.\nShows VALIDATION of other perspectives.\nWith all these benefits, why wouldn’t everyone choose credit unions? That’s a good question. Some people\nprefer banks because they often have branches and ATMs throughout the country, which is convenient for\ntravel. Also, some people say that banks offer more services. And, many people don’t know much about credit\nunions at all. We encourage you to stop by Better Horizons and make direct comparisons with your current\nbank. You’ll find that banking with Better Horizons saves you money, provides convenience when you travel, and\noffers services to meet nearly any banking need.\nPlease stop by anytime and meet with Ms. Norah Stevens or another membership specialist to learn more.\nOr, fill out the online membership application. New members who complete an application before September 1\nwill receive $50 cash in their new checking account.\nConcludes with call to ACTION.\n2737 Better Horizons Loop, Pescaloosa, FL 91214 • Phone: 803-784-7300 • Email: email@example.com • Web: www.bhcu.org\ncar88340_ch10_294-333.indd 316\n10/16/19 9:03 AM\nPERSUASIVE MESSAGES CHAPTER TEN 317\nTo…\nAnderson, Jamal; Anderson, Jennifer; Baker, William; Belk, Crystal; Belk, Jonathan;\nBelk, Ralph; Belk, Sally; Bi, Hu; Cardwell, Stephanie; Carter, Branson; Carter,\nElizabeth; Casey, Stephen; Casey, Rick; Cedar, Brian; Cedar, Rebeka\nSubject:\nYour Duty to the Women in Your Lives\nDear Credit Union Member:\nFIGURE 10.8\nLess Effective External\nPersuasive Message\nBased on Emotional\nAppeals\nThis message is not personalized, shames the\nreaders, and employs excessive negative language.\nPlease join Better Horizons in our fight against breast cancer, one of the deadliest cancers for women.\nYou owe it to the women in your lives to make a difference. Think about the following facts:\n•\n•\nAbout 182,460 women will develop breast cancer this year in our country.\nBreast cancer ranks second among cancer deaths in women.\nBreast cancer affects all of us deeply–a mother, a wife, a daughter, a friend. If you really care, you’ll join\nus in this fight.\nAll proceeds of the Hope Walkathon are for the Betty Williams Breast Center and are used for community\neducation, research, and support for low-income patients and families. The Betty Williams Breast Center\nhas a nationally accredited program for treatment of breast cancer. It helps do research in a national\nnetwork of breast centers that are at the forefront of research for improving treatments. The breast center\nis active in educating our community about detecting breast cancer early. It spreads the word about\nbreast self-exams and mammograms. The Betty Williams Breast Center began with an initial donation by\nBetty Williams, a breast cancer survivor and longtime Best Horizons member. Betty would certainly want\nto see you out there trying to help the victims of this horrible disease.\nRegistration is just $50 per person. If you are not able to participate in the walkathon, you are still\nwelcome to register and make your donation to the Betty Williams Breast Center. Each Better Horizons\nparticipating member will receive a Hope Walkathon T-shirt, a Better Horizons water bottle, and a copy of\nLifestyle Choices to Help Avoid Cancer. Best of all, you are part of the Better Horizons effort to stop\nbreast cancer.\nTo join the Better Horizons Credit Union team, complete an online application or send your application by\nmail. Just complete the application by September 21 to secure your spot and Better Horizons T-shirt.\nYour T-shirt will be mailed to you so that you can wear it for the walkathon and represent Better Horizons\nwith pride! The walkathon will be held on Saturday, October 6 at 9:00 a.m. at Central Park. Do your part\nto improve the lives of women in our community!\nThe more effective example also provides an influential appreciation statement (the\nless effective example provides no appreciation statement) that anticipates the thoughts\nof skeptical consumers. In italics, it asks, With all these benefits, why wouldn’t everyone\nchoose credit unions? This validates the thinking of customers who might otherwise dismiss all these benefits as too good to be true. The paragraph explains why some people\nprefer banks and encourages customers to make direct comparisons themselves. Finally,\nthe message concludes with a call to action—a cash reward to new members who join\nbefore September 1. Most effective sales messages provide incentives to motivate purchase of products or services.\nNow notice the differences between the less effective and more effective external\npersuasive messages in Figures 10.8 and 10.9, both of which use emotional appeals\nto rally people to sign up for the Hope Walkathon. In the less effective example (Figure 10.8), Haniz includes several statements that readers could perceive as guilt trips. It\nuses a series of extremely negative terms within the first few sentences (i.e., deadliest,\ncancer deaths) without providing hopeful words, an approach that could lead readers to\nthink participating in the walkathon would make little difference. Furthermore, the\nmessage is not personalized. Rather than focusing on the local and credit union communities, it exclusively examines the problem in a national context.\nIn the more effective example (Figure 10.9), the message is far more personalized,\nupbeat, positive, and pressure-free. Instead of citing national statistics, it provides statistics about the local community and the credit union. It places more emphasis on\nBetty Williams, who is tied to the community and credit union. It describes the fun\nand excitement the reader will feel being part of a team. It does not avoid some of the\ncar88340_ch10_294-333.indd 317\n10/16/19 9:03 AM\n318 PART FOUR TYPES OF BUSINESS MESSAGES\nFIGURE 10.9\nMore Effective External\nPersuasive Message\nBased on Emotional\nAppeal\nTo…\nAnderson, Jamal\nSubject:\nJoin the Better Horizons Team to Fight Breast Cancer; Register for the Hope Walkathon\nby September 21\nHello Jamal:\nThis message is personalized, exciting, inspiring,\nand motivating. It lives up to the theme: hope.\nPlease join our team in this year’s Hope Walkathon in the fight against breast cancer. Last year, our\nteam of 415 members raised $23,000 for the Betty Williams Breast Center, located right here in our\ntown.\nBreast cancer affects our community deeply–but there is hope! Many advances in prevention and\ntreatment are made possible by the proceeds from the Hope Walkathon. You can help make a\ndifference for women here in our community.\nConsider the following facts:\n•\n•\nAbout 50 women per year in our county are diagnosed with breast cancer.\nSeven of our credit union members were diagnosed with breast cancer last year (that we know\nof).\n•\n•\n•\nAbout 1 in 8 women in our community will be diagnosed with breast cancer during their lifetime.\nBreast cancer is the second deadliest cancer in women.\nThe five-year survival rate for breast cancer is 95 percent when it is detected early.\nAll proceeds of the walkathon go directly to the Betty Williams Breast Center and promote community\neducation, research, and support for low-income patients and families. The Betty Williams Breast\nCenter runs a nationally accredited program for treatment of breast cancer. It also contributes to a\nnational network of breast centers that are at the forefront of research for improving treatments. The\nbreast center is active in educating our community about detecting breast cancer early. It spreads the\nword about breast self-exams, mammograms, and other forms of prevention.\nThe Betty Williams Breast Center began with an initial donation by Betty Williams, a breast cancer\nsurvivor and longtime Best Horizons member. You can see her at the walkathon, where she will be\nparticipating for the 17th consecutive year!\nRegistration is just $50 per person. If you are not able to participate in the walkathon, you are still\nwelcome to register and make your donation to the Betty Williams Breast Center. Each Better Horizons\nparticipating member will receive a Hope Walkathon T-shirt, a Better Horizons water bottle, and a copy\nof Lifestyle Choices to Help Avoid Cancer. Best of all, your money goes to a great cause.\nTo join the Better Horizons Credit Union team, complete an online application or send your application\nby mail. Please complete the application by September 21 to secure your spot and T-shirt. Your shirt\nwill be mailed to you so that you can wear it for the walkathon.\nThe walkathon will be held on Saturday, October 6 at 9:00 a.m. at Central Park. Please join Betty and\nthe rest of the Better Horizons team for a day of fun, excitement, and hope!\nThanks,\nHaniz\nnegative terms (i.e., deadliest, diagnosed) associated with breast cancer; however, it\nuses far more positive and constructive words and phrases (i.e., hope, prevention, treatment, survival, you can make a difference, 95 percent) to create an overall hopeful and\ninspiring message. While both messages contain a call to action, the call to action in\nthe more effective example includes a direct link to sign up online. The more effective\nexample provides other links as well so readers can learn more about the walkathon\nand the Betty Williams Breast Center.\nComposing Mass Sales Messages\nLO10.7 C\n onstruct\neffective mass\nsales messages.\ncar88340_ch10_294-333.indd 318\nEven if you are not in a marketing position, you may participate in developing mass\nsales messages—messages sent to a large group of consumers and intended to market a\nparticular product or service. Often in the form of mass emails, online ads, or sales\nletters, these messages generally have low success rates (ratio of number of purchases\n10/16/19 9:03 AM\nPERSUASIVE MESSAGES CHAPTER TEN 319\nTechnology Tips\nARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) TOOLS AND PERSUASION\nIncreasingly, AI systems are capable of developing arguments on complex and sophisticated topics. These systems can explore issues that do not have black-and-white\nanswers. They can even listen to the arguments of\nhumans and develop counterarguments.\nOne well-known system is IBM’s Project Debater. It has\ndebated many people, including debate champions, on\ndiverse topics. IBM explains that Project Debater can\n“help people reason by providing compelling, evidencebased arguments and limiting the influence of emotion,\nbias, or ambiguity.”\nYour challenge: Watch IBM’s Project Debater (based\non AI technologies) compete in a debate against a\ndebate champion (for example, you can watch a debate\nhere: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m3u-1yttrVw).\nThink about the value of this type of tool for the workplace. Explain how using a tool like this could improve\nyour argumentation and persuasive skills.\nIBM/Splash News/SplashNews/Newscom\nSources: Gallo, C. (2019, January 13). IBM’s AI machine makes a convincing case that it’s mastering\nthe human art of persuasion. Forbes. Retrieved from www.forbes.com/sites/carminegallo/2019/01/13/\nibms-ai-machine-makes-a-convincing-case-that-its-mastering-the-human-art-of-persuasion/; IBM.\n(n.d.). Project Debater. IBM AI research. Retrieved from https://www.research.ibm.com/artificialintelligence/project-debater/.\nto number of message recipients). For example, a company sending out 7,000 sales\nletters may achieve only a 2 percent success rate (140 sales directly attributable to the\nmailings)—enough to make the effort profitable. Since mass emails and online ads are\nmuch less expensive than hard-copy sales letters (costs generally involve purchasing\nconsumer email lists and online ads but no paper or postage), expected success rates\nmay be much lower.\nA secondary benefit of mass sales messages is that even when consumers do not\nrespond with immediate purchases, these messages can raise a company’s brand\nawareness. Consumers may keep the company in mind when making a purchase one,\ntwo, or more years in the future. On the other hand, many consumers resent mass\nsales messages. Excessive sales letters and spam emails may lower brand value in\nsome cases.\nWhile most of the principles from this chapter apply to sales messages, the structure\nof mass sales messages is adjusted to increase the success rate. Even modest improvements in the success rate—for example, from 2 percent to 3 percent—can make tens of\nthousands of dollars’ difference in revenue. The most common model for mass sales\nmessages is the AIDA approach: attention, interest, desire, and action. This approach\nbegins and ends like other persuasive messages; it must first gain attention and it should\nend with a specific call to action.\nTypically, the attention-getter needs to be livelier and even more provocative than\nwith internal persuasive messages. After gaining attention, the next step is to build\ninterest and curiosity. Then, the sales message should focus on building desire. That\nis, you want potential customers thinking, “I want this product or service.” You conclude with a specific call to action that the potential customer can take to begin the\npurchase process.\ncar88340_ch10_294-333.indd 319\nStructure of Mass\nSales Messages\n•\n•\n•\n•\nGain attention.\nGenerate interest.\nBuild desire.\nCall to action.\n10/16/19 9:03 AM\n320 PART FOUR TYPES OF BUSINESS MESSAGES\nMost effective sales messages contain a central sales theme. Like other messages,\nsales messages are strongest when they contain a coherent, unified theme that consumers can recognize quickly. However, whereas your colleagues and clients who know you\nwill grant you a window of 30 seconds or so to provide your main point, recipients of\nmass sales messages may give you only a few seconds. Thus, your sales message should\nstick to a single, recognizable theme that resonates within seconds.\nOne of the most common sales themes is price. Sales messages that focus on price\ntend to emphasize it immediately, generally in the attention-getter. Sales messages that\nemphasize other attributes typically de-emphasize price by making a brief mention of it\nnear the end of the message. Some sales messages omit any references to price. This is\na risky strategy for mass sales messages since most consumers expect at least some\ninformation about price right away.\nRecent research suggests mass sales messages may be more effective by employing a\nmore direct approach.36 With so much messaging in social media and other digital\nchannels, many people have shorter attention spans and block unwanted messages\nquickly. Further, Gen Yers and Gen Zers expect more direct messages. While the AIDA\napproach culminates in a specific call to action, youll notice in the effective mass sales\nmessages below that the central sales theme and ultimate call to action are clear in the\nsubject lines and easy to understand within seconds. Make sure your audiences recognize your request within seconds.\nIn Figures 10.10 and 10.11, you can see two mass sales messages that Haniz and\nher colleagues created to promote the credit union’s auto loans. In the first message\nFIGURE 10.10\nA Mass Sales Message\nwith a Strong Logical\nAppeal\nTo…\nMadelynne Pope\nSubject:\nCar Dealers Can’t Beat Better Horizons on Car Loans\nDear Madelynne:\nGains ATTENTION.\nYou’ve probably heard car dealers boast about their near-zero percent interest rates–but, there’s a\ncatch! By financing with car dealers, you give up your opportunity to receive manufacturer rebates and your\npower to negotiate on price.\nWhen you get a preapproved auto loan with Better Horizons, you never have to give up manufacturer\nrebates and you gain more leverage in the negotiating process. Take, for example, a $25,000 car. You can\nsave over $1,700 over the course of a 5-year loan by financing with Better… \nPurchase answer to see full\nattachment
APA paper format
The American Psychological Association (APA) format is a widely used style for writing academic papers in the social sciences. The APA format provides specific guidelines for formatting papers, including margins, font size and type, spacing, and the use of headings. These guidelines ensure that papers written in the APA format are visually consistent and easy to read.
In the APA format, papers are typically double-spaced and written in 12-point Times New Roman font. The margins should be 1 inch on all sides, and the text should be left-aligned. Headings are used to organize the paper into sections, with different levels of headings used to indicate the hierarchy of information.
In-text citations are an essential aspect of the APA format, and they must be included whenever information from an outside source is used in the paper. The reference page is also an important component of an APA paper, as it lists all of the sources used in the paper. The reference page should be formatted according to the APA guidelines, including the use of a hanging indent for each reference and the use of italics for book titles.
It is important to note that the APA format is not just a matter of style, but it is also a way of communicating research findings and ideas. The use of the APA format helps to ensure that the information presented in a paper is clear, concise, and easy to understand.
In conclusion, the APA format is a widely used style for writing academic papers in the social sciences. It provides specific guidelines for formatting papers, including margins, font size and type, spacing, and the use of headings. By following the APA format, students can ensure that their papers are visually consistent, easy to read, and meet academic standards.
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